[23] But the Pergamenes made offerings to Telephus[24] and the grave of his mother Auge was located in Pergamon near the Caicus. After the Sack of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, Pergamon became part of the Empire of Nicaea. [68][69], At Pergamon, Dionysus had the epithet Kathegemon, 'the guide',[70] and was already worshiped in the last third of the 3rd century BC, when the Attalids made him the chief god of their dynasty. From 1957 to 1968, Erich Boehringer worked on the Asklepieion in particular, but also carried out important work on the lower city as a whole and performed survey work, which increased knowledge of the countryside surrounding the city. Here you can find information about the history of ancient Turkey, about biblical sites to visit in Turkey and Greece, major Christian Saints, missionary journeys of St. Paul and Seven Churches of St. John. In this place people with health problems could bathe in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asclepius would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. The church in Pergamum, like many today, had failed to heed to biblical warnings against worldliness. Pergamum, a city of the Roman province of Asia, in the west of what is now Asiatic Turkey, occupied a commanding position near the seaward end of the broad valley of the Caicus. 1:11) and forms the third letter, an order which suits its position in geographical sequence. Under Augustus, the first imperial cult, a neocorate, to be established in the province of Asia was in Pergamon. It sits on the edge of the city’s acropolis. At the beginning of the 19th century, Charles Robert Cockerell produced a detailed account and Otto Magnus von Stackelberg made important sketches. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The first mention of Pergamon in written records after ancient times comes from the 13th century. [43] During the excavations fragments of statues of Trajan and Hadrian were found in the rubble of cella, including their portrait heads, as well as fragments of the cult statue of Zeus Philios.[78]. [30], However, for the Attalids, it was apparently the genealogical connection to Heracles that was crucial, since all the other Hellenistic dynasties had long established such links:[31] the Ptolemies derived themselves directly from Heracles,[32] the Antigonids inserted Heracles into their family tree in the reign of Philip V at the end of the 3rd century BC at the latest,[33] and the Seleucids claimed descent from Heracles' brother Apollo. The original Attalid territory around Pergamum (Mysia) was greatly expanded by 188 bce with the addition of Lydia (excluding most Greek coastal cities), part of Phrygia, Lycaonia, and Pisidia (from 183 bce), all former Seleucid territories. Most of the finds from the Pergamon excavations before the First World War were taken to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, with a smaller portion going to the İstanbul Archaeological Museum after it was opened in 1891. [12] Only at this point did an entirely independent Pergamene kingdom come into existence, which would reach its greatest power and territorial extent in 188 BC. [88] His martyrdom is one of the first recorded in Christian history, highlighted by the Christian Scripture itself through the message sent to the Pergamon Church in the Book of Revelation. In the course of the expansion of the city under Eumenes, the commercial character of the Upper Agora was further developed. The temple and the altar were built for Demeter by Philetaerus, his brother Eumenes, and their mother Boa. Pergamum, also known as Pergamos, was called the greatest city in Asia Minor. In 362 BC, Orontes, satrap of Mysia, based his revolt against the Persian Empire at Pergamon, but was crushed. This was however an erroneous reconstruction by the English translators, and does not appear in the Greek text, which uses either the original Πέργαμον (Rev 1:11) or the dative case Περγάμῳ (Rev 2:12). The Lord commended them for holding fast to the faith, even though one of their members had already been martyred, Antipas the “faithful witness.” “Witness” in Greek is martys ; it is because the early church had so many witnesses like Antipas who were “faithful unto death” (Rev. 2:10) that martyr took on its present meaning. The most famous structure from the city is the monumental altar, which was probably dedicated to Zeus and Athena. They are one and the same. Further Roman baths were constructed to the west of the Ionic temple.[83]. Please visit the attraction's website and/or social media before going to double-check that they are open. [46], From the beginning of the reign of Philetairos, civic events in Pergamon were concentrated on the Acropolis. The civic structures of the lower city included a large marketplace, a gymnasium, and temples of Hera and Demeter. The result of this war was a stagnation in the development of the city. At this time, the system is being repaired so the larger busses have to hire a … Why did Christ refer to Pergamum (or modern day Bergama, Turkey) as the place where Satan lives and where his throne is to be found? Bergama, town, İzmir ili (province), western Turkey, 50 miles (80 km) north of the city of İzmir (Smyrna).It shares the site of ancient Pergamum, of which there are extensive ruins remaining.The modern town lies over the remains of the Roman city, while the remains of the ancient Greek city with its acropolis lie northeast across the Bergama River, on a high hill with terraced slopes. After the First World War the Bergama Museum was opened, which has received all finds discovered since then. A few years later, the Apostle John wrote the Book of Revelation, mentioning the death of Antipas in Pergamum. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. Zu Entwicklung und Stadtstruktur von der Neugründung unter Philetairos bis in spätantike Zeit,", Klaus Grewe, Ünal Özis, et al. A two-story stoa surrounding the temple on three sides was added under Eumenes II, along with the propylon in the southeast corner, which is now found, largely reconstructed, in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. The site is occupied by the modern town of Bergama, in the il (province) of İzmir, Turkey. There was, as was usual, a stadium, a theatre and temples. In the 19th century, German engineers dismantled the altar and took it to Berlin. The famous Altar of Zeus, which was originally in the Acropolis, was taken to Germany in 1897 and it is presently on exhibition at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. The plan of Pergamon was affected by the extreme steepness of the site. In Roman times its population was an estimated 200,000. In the east part of the terrace there was a small prostyle temple in the Corinthian order. The sanctuary was old; its activity can be traced back to the fourth century BC. It only takes a few moments to realize there are places mentioned in the Bible that we cannot find on a map, today. Pergamene sculpture is exemplified by the great reliefs from the altar of Zeus, now in Berlin, and copies of dedicatory statues showing defeated Gauls. Each of these messages includes a specific word to a specific church, but there are also lessons applicable to the lives of believers today. Pergamon was an ancient city located in the Anatolia region, approximately 25 kilometres from the Aegean Sea in present-day Bergama, Izmir Province of Turkey.The city had great strategic value, since it overlooked the Caicus River Valley (modern name Bakırçay) which provided access from Pergamon to the Aegean coast. Excavations that were begun in 1878 under the auspices of the Berlin Museum, besides unearthing many artistic treasures, have enabled archaeologists to reconstruct the plan of the most important areas of the Hellenistic city. Today we headed to the city of Pergamum. A permanent residence is the idea. For example, the ancient city of Pergamum was said to be “where the throne of Satan is” and “where Satan is dwelling.” (Revelation 2:13) Actually, these expressions likely refer to the concentration of satanic worship in that city. Pergamum was a principal city of the Roman empire in the first century. This Roman new city was able to expand without any city walls constraining it because of the absence of external threats. A marble stage building was only built in the 1st century BC. Pergamos, according to Dr. Young, was "A celebrated city of Mysia, near the river Caicus. The Pergamon Altar, P. v Zaubern, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, 1991. When Eumenes’ son and second successor, Attalus III, died without an heir, he bequeathed the kingdom to Rome (133). Its structure sits on two parallel terraces, the south one about 107.4 metres above sea level and the north one about 109.8 metres above sea level. Especially in this latter type there is often a second story accessed by stairways. Revelation 2:12-17 Pergamum is located north of Smyrna. Today we headed to the city of Pergamum. [19][20] Under Isaac II Angelos (r. 1185–1195), the local see was promoted to a metropolitan bishopric, having previously been a suffragan diocese of the Metropolis of Ephesus.[20]. Pausanias in his account of Pergamum, also described the throne-like altar to Zeus on the top of the crag above the city. For more detail, click on individual Church name.. Church of Pergamos Revelation 2:12-16. In late antiquity, it experienced a limited economic recovery. The Second World War also caused a break in work at Pergamon, which lasted until 1957. The side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough. The massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. Pliny had called it, “longe clarissimum Asiae Pergamum.” The Original Throne of Satan in the Cretan City of Pergamon The original city of Pergamon and possibly another throne of Satan I have found to be in the exact location where in the Old world where you would most likely find the ancient Greek God of wisdom, medicine, healing, rejuvenation and physicians known as ‘Asclepius’ . Jesus had John to pass along one of His prophetic letters to Pergamos (also referred to as Pergamum), in which He says: “I know thy works, and where you dwell, even where satan’s seat is.” Die Bauwerke,", Ulrike Wulf, "Der Stadtplan von Pergamon. This victory over the Galatians, a threat to the Pergamene kingdom, secured his power, which he then attempted to consolidate. In addition to cisterns, there was a system of nine pipes (seven Hellenistic ceramic pipes and two open Roman channels. [55] The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. For the construction of the road from Pergamon to Dikili for which he had undertaken planning work and topographical studies, he returned in 1869 and began to focus intensively on the legacy of the city. The ancient city of Pergamum, or Pergamon, was the center of pagan worship in Asia Minor. The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. The city had great strategic value, since it overlooked the Caicus River Valley (modern name Bakırçay) which provided access from Pergamon to the Aegean coast. For the construction under Eumenes II, a city block of 35 x 45 m can be reconstructed, subject to significant variation as a result of the terrain. However, in the epic cycle the Telephos myth is already connected with the area of Mysia. But when the Apostle John wrote his letter to the church there, it was one of the most influential cities in the Roman Empire. Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey. Further rooms of uncertain function were accessible from the stoas. Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. Christ says to the church that He knows where they dwell, "where Satan's seat is". The people lived below the mountain. Until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c. 21 hectares (52 acres). [44] The surviving remains of the inscription on the architrave indicate that the building was the temple of Hera Basileia and that it was erected by Attalus II.[84]. It consisted of a courtyard surrounded by stoas and other structures, measuring roughly 36 x 74 metres. It was a north-facing Doric peripteros temple with six columns on the short side and ten on the long side and a cella divided into two rooms. All the other buildings in the sanctuary were made out of trachyte, but the visible part of the temple was made of marble, or at least had a marble cladding. Updates? Greek inscriptions discovered at Pergamon include the rules of the town clerks,[89] the so-called Astynomoi inscription, which has added to understanding of Greek municipal laws and regulations, including how roads were kept in repair, regulations regarding the public and private water supply and lavatories. But East Berlin is also where Hitler's headquarters were located. It was a Doric tetrastyle prostyle temple, with three triglyphs and metopes for each span in the entablature. [48] With progressive development of the open space, these buildings were demolished, while the Upper Agora itself took on a more strongly commercial function, while still a special space as a result of the temple of Zeus. The inhabitants of Pergamon were supplied with water by an effective system. [4], The Caicus valley is mostly composed of volcanic rock, particularly andesite and the Pergamon massif is also an intrusive stock of andesite. Asclepius’ symbol is a serpent-entwined staff (still used in the medical world today). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Pergamum, ancient Greek city in Mysia, situated 16 miles from the Aegean Sea on a lofty isolated hill on the northern side of the broad valley of the Caicus (modern Bakır) River. Translation, Satan dwells in Pergamum and continues to dwell in this location moving forward. When he died in 241, he was succeeded by his nephew Attalus I, who defeated the Galatians and assumed the royal title; the dynasty received its name from him. "The Idea of the Library as a Classical Model for European Culture,". The main rooms are often stacked in two levels on the north side of the courtyard. The temple towers flanking the main building had courtyards with pools used for ablutions at each end, flanked by stoas on three sides. On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. In their constructive adaptation of the myth, the Attalids stood within the tradition of the other, older Hellenistic dynasties, who legitimized themselves through divine descent, and sought to increase their own prestige. The City of Pergamum. In the middle of the 2nd century, Pergamon was one of the largest cities in the province, along with these two, and had around 200,000 inhabitants. Doubtless, such a ceremony took place in Pergamos too. The southeast slope and the whole western slope of the hill were now settled and opened up by streets. The verb tense in the Greek is present which indicates continuous action. In the book of Acts, Lydia was a wealthy benefactress and convert to Christianity. At the beginning of the third century, Caracalla granted the city a third neocorate, but the decline had already set in. Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar. The early Attalids erected the first structures of the upper (royal) city, but the later kings Eumenes II and Attalus III, by their extensive building and rebuilding, were chiefly responsible for the city’s great architectural and artistic reputation. The Church of Pergamos (Pergamum) is the third of seven Churches addressed in Revelation Chapters 2 & 3. The city is centered around a 335-metre-high (1,099 ft) mesa of andesite which formed its acropolis. Numerous honorific inscriptions indicate his work and his exceptional position in Pergamon at this time.[17]. As a result of this short but intensive investigation, two fragments of a great frieze were discovered and transported to Berlin for detailed analysis, where they received some interest, but not a lot. Pergamon was an ancient city located in the Anatolia region, approximately 25 kilometres from the Aegean Sea in present-day Bergama, Izmir Province of Turkey. [57] The surface of the street consisted of andesite blocks up to 5 metres wide, 1 metre long and 30 cm deep. Over time the so-called 'Upper agora' was developed at the south end of this. Under Attalos I some minor changes were made to the city of Philetairos. Church in Pergamum, Seven Church of Revelation Turkey, Seven Churches of Revelation, Biblical Tour Guide is a web site where we share with you our knowledge and offer you our top services. Volume XV 1: Meinrad N. Filges, Wolfgang Radt: This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 23:19. The lowest and southernmost terrace is small and almost free of buildings. To the north, the area was closed off by a high stoa, while on the west and east sides it was surrounded by simple ashlar walls, until further stoas were inserted in Hadrian's reign. Thyatira-Akhisar. The modern village of Bergama, Turkey, now covers part of the ancient site. 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